Question of the Week: Pierce’s Disease

Last week the question was:  Which disease has infected this muscadine vine?

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This is a bacterial disease called Pierce’s disease, Xylella fastidiosa.  Pierce’s disease is vectored by leafhoppers, primarily the glassy winged sharpshooter.  The bacteria clog the xylem tissue in the plant decreasing water flow which leads to the scorch-like symptoms on the leaves.  Muscadines handle Pierce’s disease fairly well and will normally survive, however, Xylella is a very serious problem on other crops.  For more information, look here.

 

Here is this week’s question:  What will this nymph grow up to be?

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Soybean Rust Update – 9/22/16

FROM:  John Mueller, Extension Soybean Pathologist, Edisto Research and Education Center

YOU CAN NOW ADD ORANGEBURG COUNTY TO THE LIST OF COUNTIES WITH RUST IN SOUTH CAROLINA.   RUST HAS NOW BEEN FOUND ON SOYBEAN IN COLLETON, BAMBERG, AND ORANGEBURG COUNTIES. 

Jonathan Croft, Agronomic Row Crop Agent for Orangeburg county found rust in a sample of 80 soybean leaves collected today from a soybean field at the R 5.4 growth stage in the Norway area.  There were 5 pustules on one leaf and 3 pustules on another leaf.  The pustules are just starting to sporulate.

Counties that have been surveyed but no rust found now include: Allendale, Anderson, Barnwell, Calhoun, Clarendon, Dillon, Darlington, Dorchester, Hampton, Horry, Jasper, Lee, Marion, Newberry, Richland, Saluda and Sumter Counties. 

I think there should be a new saying about the weather in South Carolina: “if you don’t like your weather just drive 20 or 25 miles in any direction.”   Near the Edisto REC the weather has been perfect for the development of rust and many other foliar, stem and pod diseases such as Anthracnose, Phomopis and Purple Seed Stain.  Long dews and overcast, foggy weather in the morning are very favorable for disease development.  However, I am told in other parts of the state we are back to clear and dry.   If you have soybeans with good yield potential that are between growth stages R-3 and R-5 this would be a great time to spray before any diseases develop.  Remember, once you hit R-6 in a given field you cannot spray any fungicides.

 

Here are a few more survey results from the last few days:

Jonathan Croft, Orangeburg County Agronomic Row Crop Agent also collected 75 leaves from a field in Dorchester County that was at the R 5.3 stage on September 16.  No rust was found.

Andrew Warner, Allendale/Hampton Agronomic Row Crop Agent collected 200 leaves on September 19 from a field in Allendale at R 4; no rust was found.

If you would like an update on the occurrence of soybean rust across the United States check out http://sbr.ipmpipe.org .

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Powdery Mildew on Fall Watermelon

Clemson Plant Pathologist Tony Keinath recently found powdery mildew in his fall watermelon plots at the Coastal REC in Charleston.  He says this is the first time he has observed powdery mildew on fall watermelon, and its likely because the weather has been dry.

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Powdery mildew symptoms on watermelon leaf.  Photo from Tony Keinath.

Dr. Keinath stated, “The SC Watermelon Spray Guide for fall watermelon does not include products specifically for powdery mildew. Growers should use Quintec or Torino as preventatives or Torino or Vivando (BASF) if they find PM. The rainy weather on the way may limit PM if it is not too advanced.”  Some areas have received a fair amount of rain in the last few days, but make sure you’re keeping an eye on what’s in your fields.

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SCDA Waste Pesticide Collections

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Question of the Week: Cotton Fibers

Last week the question was:  How many individual fibers are in a cotton boll?

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A cotton boll can have as many as 250,000 to 500,000 fibers in each boll.  In the long staple upland cotton that we grow in the Pee Dee region, each strand is between 1.125 and 1.25 inches long.  For more information, the National Cotton Council of America website can tell you everything you ever wanted to know about cotton.

 

Here is this week’s question:  Which disease has infected this muscadine vine?

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Cotton Marketing News – 9/15/16

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Asian Soybean Rust Update – 9/14/16

FROM:  John Mueller, Extension Soybean Pathologist, Edisto Research and Education Center

IN SOUTH CAROLINA RUST HAS NOW BEEN FOUND ON SOYBEAN IN COLLETON AND BAMBERG COUNTIES. 

Joe Varn, Barnwell/Bamberg County Row Crop agent proved again that he has a knack for finding rust. He located rust on one leaf out of 90 from a field just east of Bamberg.  The leaf had 4 pustules present.

Counties that have been surveyed but no rust found now include: Allendale, Anderson, Barnwell, Calhoun, Clarendon, Dillon, Darlington, Dorchester, Hampton, Horry, Jasper, Lee, Marion, Newberry, Orangeburg, Richland, Saluda and Sumter Counties. 

This week’s weather is certainly perfect for the development of rust and many other foliar, stem and pod diseases such as Anthracnose, Phomopis and Purple Seed Stain.  If you have soybeans with good yield potential that are between growth stages R-3 and R-5 this would be a good time to spray before any diseases develop.  Remember, once you hit R-6 in a given field you cannot spray any fungicides.

Here are a few other survey results from this week:

Justin Ballew, Horticulture and Agronomy Agent for Dillon and Marion Counties sent in leaves from two fields in Dillon County.  He collected 50 leaves from each field but no rust was found on either field.

Trish DeHond, Area Agronomy Agent, Darlington submitted 50 leaves in a sample from the Hartsville area but no rust was found.

Hannah Mikell, Clarendon County Agronomy Agent sent in leaves from 2 fields in Clarendon County.  Fifty leaves were examined from each field but no rust was found.

With the help of David Gunter, Feed Grains Specialist, I examined over 300 leaves from plots on the Edisto REC in Barnwell County.  No rust was found.

If you would like an update on the occurrence of soybean rust across the United States check out http://sbr.ipmpipe.org .

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Question of the Week: Blossom End Rot

Last week the question was:  What is wrong with this watermelon?

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There are two things wrong with this watermelon.  The first is blossom end rot.  This is a localized calcium deficiency that is usually caused by an inconsistent water supply.  The second problem is poor pollination.  This is what is causing the gourd-like shape to this watermelon.  To achieve good pollination and shape, each female flower needs about 1000 grains of pollen which is achieved from about 8 visits.  For more information on pollination, take at look at this page, and for more info on blossom end rot, look at this one.

 

Here is this week’s question:  How many individual fibers are in a cotton boll?

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Peanut Maturity/ Digging

It won’t be long now before the peanut diggers are in the field and a few have gotten started this week.  Birdsong Peanuts in Darlington received their first truck load Monday.

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As we close in on maturity, we need to make sure we dig at exactly the right time so we can maximize our yield and quality.  If we dig too late, we risk losing overmature peanuts that may snap off the peg and stay in the ground.  If we dig too early, we will have too many immature peanuts that are more susceptible to molds and can rot in storage.  Hull blasting remains the best method of checking maturity.

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Pull several plants from around the field.  Sample your peanuts the same way you would sample the soil.  Remember, you want a sample that represents the whole field and not just a single spot in the field.  Next, pick off all the full size pods (make sure you have around 200).  Blast away the outer layer of the hull with a pressure washer with an oscillating nozzle to reveal the color of the mesocarp.  Use the photos below (also found on page 77 of the Peanut Money Maker Guide) to determine maturity.

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Your goal is to have at least 70% of your peanuts in the orange, brown, and black stages.  Those are your sound mature kernels.  Remember, it takes about 10-14 days for a peanut to move from the middle of one color stage to the middle of the next.  Take the weather into your account when making digging decisions, also.  If you would like help making digging decisions, contact your local Clemson Extension Agent.  For more info, take a look at the “Determining Harvest Maturity” section of the Peanut Money Maker Guide.

 

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Pee Dee REC Field Day – 9/13/16

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